8

Thyroid disorders – types, Signs, and symptoms, Causes

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck just above the trachea. It consists of two connected lobes. The thyroid follicle is the secretory unit thyroid.

Thyroid hormones are,

  • Thyroxine/ Tetraiodothyronine
  • Tri-iodothyronine

Functions of thyroid hormones

  • Control the basal metabolic rate
  • Enhance mitochondrial metabolism
  • Stimulate neural development and normal growth
  • Stimulate protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism
  • Increase cholesterol and triglyceride production and breakdown

There are three types of thyroid disorders

  1. Hypothyroidism
  2. Hyperthyroidism
  3. non-thyroidal illness

Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism are,

  • Weight gain
  • Lethargy
  • Muscle weakness
  • Dry skin
  • Constipation
  • Bradycardia
  • Hair loss

Causes of hypothyroidism

  • Autoimmune hypothyroidism – Thyroid illness is most commonly caused by this. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the primary condition of hypothyroidism. Thyroid follicular cells are destroyed as a result.
  • Inborn errors in thyroid hormone biosynthesis
  • Iodine deficiency or excess
  • Drug-induced – Various drugs affect thyroid function
  • Radiation treatment – Hypothyroidism is caused by surgical removal of the thyroid gland.
  • Viral or bacterial thyroiditis
  • Subclinical hypothyroidism

Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to these diseases.

Myxoedema -It is caused by an accumulation of hydrophilic mucopolysaccharides in the skin and other tissues. Cretinism – It is a severe thyroid hormone deficit in infants.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a hypermetabolic disorder induced by excessive thyroid hormone production. Thyrotoxicosis is overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in high amounts of thyroid hormones in the circulation.

Sign and symptoms of hyperthyroidism

  • Weight loss
  • Excessive sweating
  • Hyperactivity
  • Tachycardia
  • Sleeplessness

Causes of hyperthyroidism

  • Autoimmune thyroid diseases – Graves disease-symptoms are bulging eyes, goiter, sweating – Hashitoxicosis -symptoms are fatigue, anxiety
  • Toxic nodular/multinodular goiter
  • hCG induced hyperthyroidism

non-thyroidal illness

Many disorders are associated with variation in the concentration of thyroid hormones in the absence of definable thyroid disease. non-thyroidal illness causes are acute and chronic illnesses(myocardial infarction, surgery, trauma) and starvation.

Ushan

8 Comments

  1. Hi there, I discovered your website by way of Google even as searching for a
    comparable subject, your site got here up, it seems to be good.

    I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
    Hello there, just changed into alert to your blog via Google,
    and located that it is really informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels.
    I will appreciate if you continue this in future.

    Many other folks will likely be benefited out of your writing.

    Cheers!

  2. This is a really good tip especially to those fresh
    to the blogosphere. Brief but very accurate info… Thank
    you for sharing this one. A must read article!

  3. Thank you for another excellent article. The place else could anyone get that kind
    of information in such a perfect approach of writing?
    I’ve a presentation next week, and I’m at the search for such info.

  4. Excellent! Your post has a ton comment posts. How did you get all of these bloggers to see your post I’m very jealous! I’m still getting to know all about posting information on the net. I’m going to look around on your website to get a better idea how to achieve success. Thank you!

  5. Normally I don’t read article on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to try and do it! Your writing taste has been amazed me. Thank you, very great post.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.